Page 4 - Innovation in energy management: contribution of railways to sustainable mobility
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                  AC. Alternating Current (facility).

                  DC. Direct Current (facility).

                  DAS (Driver Advisory System). System that allows the exchange of information between the
                  railway system and the driver  to optimise train driving,  obtaining,  among other things,
                  energy savings.

                  DCS  (Data  Collector  System).  Computer  application  that  facilitates  the  data  collection
                  process,  allowing  the  acquisition  of  structured  and  specific  information in  a  systematic
                  manner, and subsequently being able to perform data analysis on the information.

                  DMU. Diesel Multiple Unit (formed by several carriages).

                  EMS. On-board Energy Measurement System.

                  EMU. Electric Multiple Unit (formed by several carriages).

                  ESS. Electrical Storage Systems.

                  EU. European Union.

                  EU-Rail JU. Europe’s Rail Joint Undertaking.  European partnership on rail research  and
                  innovation (successor of Shift2Rail Joint Undertaking).

                  External Network. AC power line (three-phase) that feeds the traction power substation.

                  FACTS  (Flexible  AC  Transmission  Systems).  Static  devices  that  are  controlled  by
                  computerised control systems coupled with high-power electronics. They can be used to
                  compensate for imbalances, that is, as load compensators when used with special control
                  algorithms.  They  can  also  be  used  to  dynamically  support  voltage  drops  on  the
                  Transmission Line and reduce harmonics from rolling stock.

                  IEA. International Energy Agency.

                  LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). Natural gas in liquid phase at a temperature of -160ºC, which
                  is why it is considered a cryogenic liquid. It is stored and transported in highly insulated
                  containers  to  maintain  its  liquid  state.  The  advantage  of  the  liquid  state  is  its  smaller
                  volume, since for each litre of LNG, approximately 570 litres of gaseous natural gas are
                  obtained at room temperature. It is made  up of  95%  methane  (CH4) and contains  tiny
                  amounts  of  ethane,  propane,  butane,  nitrogen  and  carbon  dioxide.  It  is  an  odourless,
                  colourless fuel that is non-toxic and non-corrosive.

                  RFIG. General Interest Rail Network.

                  SSEE. Electrical Traction Substation

                           Position paper: Innovation in energy management: contribution of railways to sustainable mobility
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