Page 6 - Innovation in energy management: contribution of railways to sustainable mobility
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                  In November 2016, the Spanish Railways Technological Platform (PTFE) published the first
                  version  of  the  position  paper  on  Sustainable  and  intelligent  energy  management  in  the
                  railway sector As indicated at the time, the PTFE understood that sustainable and intelligent
                  energy management in the field of research and innovation in the railway sector would be
                  a  key  factor  in  favouring  competitiveness  and  ensuring  the  leadership  of  the  railway

                  The present document is an update of the previous one, given that the sector continues to
                  establish this issue as a strategic priority due, in large part, to the economic cost but also to
                  the  need  for  railway  administrators  and  operators  to  continue  promoting  and
                  strengthening rail transport as “sustainable transport”.

                  This document was created at the end of 2021, which was the European Year of Rail. This
                  decision was adopted by the Council of the European Union in December 2020, in line with
                  EU efforts to promote sustainable modes of transport such as rail, and with its commitment
                  to achieve climate neutrality by 2050 through the European Green Deal.

                  Although transport accounts for around 25% of greenhouse gas emissions in the EU, rail is
                  only responsible for 0.4% of these emissions. It is the only means of transport that has
                  substantially  reduced  its  emissions  since  1990,  which  justifies  its  fundamental  role  in
                  sustainable mobility.

                  This is mainly because the railway is heavily electrified. Whilst other modes of transport are
                  stilltrying to migrate towards electrification, the railway had already done so by the end of
                  the 19th century, in what was considered the first technological revolution of this mode of
                  transport . Electrification is undoubtedly the way to continue reducing its emissions.

                  However,  de-carbonisation  does  not  imply  total  electrification,  and  evolution  to  other
                  complementary solutions must also be considered. In Spain, approximately 20% of current
                  rail traffic continues to be diesel, so other alternatives must be found for those lines where
                  electrification is not the best solution. With  this background, and in an environment of
                  energy transition, the railway energy future is going to be hybrid, that is, it will combine
                  renewable  electricity  and  gas  solutions,  promoting  the  development  of  new  associated

                  The IEA, in an update of its Energy Technology Perspectives report, advanced that the state
                  of maturity of the technologies on which it depends to achieve the total de-carbonisation of
                  the economy in 2050 is extremely low (between 2 and 20% depending on the segment of
                  activity).  For  this  reason,  it  emphasised  the  need  to  combine  the  acceleration  of
                  development and innovation projects with effective solutions in terms of energy efficiency.

                  In this new context, this position paper on Innovation in energy management: contribution
                  of railways to sustainable mobility, re-analyses the role of innovation in energy management
                  in infrastructure, rolling stock and operation, as well as future trends and applications. The
                  document, once again coordinated by ADIF's Research, Development and Innovation Area,
                  with the participation of companies, technology centres and research groups from different
                  universities, all members of the PTFE, has been validated by the majority of national,

                  1  To reinforce this fact, and to increase awareness, the main milestones in the use of electrical energy
                  on railways are included in the final Annex of this document.
                           Position paper: Innovation in energy management: contribution of railways to sustainable mobility
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